Defileul Jiului – Parcul National ~ Jiu Valley National Park|www.welcome2romania.wordpress.com


Parcul National Defileul Jiului a fost înfiintat în 2005, fiind una dintre cele mai tinere arii protejate de pe teritoriul tarii noastre. Parcul este situat de-a lungul defileului format de râul Jiu, între masivele Parâng si Vâlcan, în nordul judetului Gorj. Se afla la o distanta de 28 de kilometri de municipiul Târgu Jiu si la 2 kilometri de localitatea Petrosani, fiind strabatut de Drumul European 79. Suprafata totala a Parcului este de 11.127 de hectare, majoritate, a acesteia aflându-se pe teritoriul judetului Gorj, 10.545 ha, iar restul revenind judetului vecin, Hunedoara (582 ha). Zona impresioneaza prin salbaticia si frumusetea extraordinara a locurilor, prin uimitoarea bogatie a florei si faunei salbatice, linistea specifica zonei îl fac pe vizitator sa simta comuniunea cu Dumnezeu.

Una dintre frumusetile care merita vazute aici este simplul fapt ca, de la Livezeni pâna la Bumbesti-Jiu, pe o lungime de 33 km, râul Jiul si-a facut cel mai salbatic defileu din România. Specialistii în geologie au spus ca aceasta salbaticie se datoreaza structurii geologice, reprezentata de roci foarte rezistente, precum cuartite, amfibolite, calcare cristaline ce dezvolta si mentin pereti, tancuri, jgheaburi. Astazi, Bumbesti-Jiu Livezeni este sectorul de cale ferata cu cele mai multe tuneluri aflate într-un defileu din tara noastra, 43. Constructia caii ferate din Defileul Jiului a început în 1924, dar a fost de mai multe ori oprita, astfel ca, pâna în 1937, nu a înaintat decât 4 km. Dupa 1948, lucrarile au început si s-au finalizat în acelasi an. Pentru a strabate cei 33 km ai defileului a fost necesara constructia a 43 de tuneluri, 15 bolti de sustinere din beton, 109 poduri, 2,5 km ziduri de sprijin si aproximativ trei milioane metri patrati de terasamente. Din 1973, potrivit reprezentantilor CFR Gorj, calea ferata a fost electrificata.

În Parcul National Defileul Jiului au fost inventariate 701 specii de plante si 441 de specii de animale, dintre care unele sunt protejate. Aici vietuiesc vipere, vidre, ursi, râsi, iar zona are un mare potential turistic, fiind bogata în spectaculoase grote, puturi naturale sau avenuri. În inima padurii se întâlneste un interesant tip de conace, gospodarii specifice locului, iar pe traseul Bumbesti-Jiu-Petrosani pot fi vizitate manastirile Lainici si Visina.

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The Jiu Defile is located along the gorge formed by the river Jiu between the Vâlcan and Parâng massifs, in the northern part of Gorj county, Oltenia. The Jiu Defile is crossed by the European Road E79. It covers 111 km2, of which 105 km2 are in Gorj county and 5 km2 in Hunedoara county.

The defile is the wildest crossing by a river of the Southern Carpathians, with virgin or quasi-virgin forests and belongs to the category “A” – protected areas of national interest.

The Jiu defile is an area rich in spectacular karst phenomena such as caves, natural wells or avens.
The park is 85% covered by forests which leave baren only the mountain slopes and the meadows of two peaks.

Here have been identified 701 species of plants and 441 species of animals, of which more than one third are protected, including bear, lynx, otter, rabbit, wild boar, roebuck, chamois, and five species of bat that disappeared years ago on the European continent; also endangered horned vipers and scorpions, very rare insect species of communitary interest monitored by EU etc.

The Bumbe?ti – Livezeni Railway Line

The construction of the Bumbesti – Livezeni railway line was started on the time of the “bourgeois-landlord”, until 1944 60% being completed. For the brigadiers arrived on April 1, 1948 only 20% remained to be built, the rest having been executed between 1944-1947.

The 31.4 km railway lines crosses the Carpathians (Parâng Mountains), thus shortening the transport distance of the coal from the Upper Jiu Valley to the heavy industry centers in Transylvania, Banat and Walachia. Another benefit was the relaxation of traffic on the Predeal – Ploie?ti line and increased freight and passenger traffic between Oltenia and Transylvania.

The construction of the railway linking the Livezeni and Bumbesti involved excavating two million cubic meters of rock and earth embankments, building of six viaducts, 13 bridges with opening of more than eight meters, 16 coastal viaducts, 84 bridges and culverts.

Recruiting volunteers for national sites was made by the county organizations of the Youth Workers Union (UTM). The building sites were a springboard for future political career and also a “purgatory” for young people who, despite the sin of having “unhealthy social origin”, wanted to get noted in the “new world”.

This social experience was exploited with propagandistic purpose in the first movie made in Communist Romania, the classic 1950 Rasuna Valea (Reverberating Valley).

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