Calusarii intre traditie si magie ~ Calusarii – The mystical dancers ~ welcome2romania.wordpress.com



Traditia calusarilor vine din vremuri stravechi si e nascuta din credintele pagane pre-crestine. Pe vremuri calusarii erau preoti ai cultului solar. Condusi de un mare preot- devenit vataf dupa raspandirea crestinismului – dansurile lor erau mai mult decat initiatice. Erau exorcizante. Marele preot era cel care implora zeul sa il ajute si el insusi conducea mica armata a calusarilor care se razboiau cu duhurile rele ce puneau stapanire pe sate. Mai mult, calusarii depuneau un juramant al tacerii, doar vataful avand voie sa vorbeasca. Din cand in cand, la indemnurile vatafului, calusarii scoteau anumite strigate de lupta. S-a constatat ca atat juramantul de tacere cat si strigatele de lupta isi aveau rolul lor mai mult decat important. Cercetari de ultima ora in domeniul energetic au demonstrat ca pentru fiecare cuvant rostit organismul cheltuie o anumita cantitate de energie.


Xenophon ( Anabasis, VI,I 5-6) descrie astfel dansul tracic al sabiilor: “Dupa libatii si dupa cintarea paianului, cei dintii s-au manifestat tracii si au inceput sa danseze cu arma in mina in sunetul flautului , in acest timp sarind sus si usor si agitind toti pumnalele. In cele din urma , unul din ei l-a invins pe altul, si toti au crezut ca acela fusese ucis:el cazuse cu mare arta […] Invingatorul a luat arma celui invins si s-a departat cintind sitalke , iar ceilalti traci il scoasera pe cel ce cazuse ca si mort: de fapt el insa, nu suferise citusi de putin.”

Mai mult, strigatele, in functie de tonalitatea si forta lor, emit energie. Folosite in lupta, strigatele distrug armonia dusmanului, ii anihileaza puterea (cat de destepti au fost stramosii nostri cand au descoperit asta cu mii de ani inaintea practicantilor de arte martiale). Marele preot al cultului, isi transmitea cunostintele unui singur barbat care urma sa-i ia locul. Datorita raspandirii restinismului, celelalte culte pagane au pierdut teren, putin cate putin, ramanand, totusi, adanc inradacinate in lumea satului. In felul acesta, “Calusul” a ramas doar un dans inteles de tot mai putini oameni. Cu toate astea sunt oameni care cred in continuare ca privitul calusarilor te ajuta si iti aduce noroc tot anul.

Bucurie si leac impotriva bolilor aduc cu ei vestitii calusari. Traditia spune ca fiecare ceata va da viata dansului ritualic menit sa-i scape de suferinta pe aceia care n-au fost cu bagare de seama si au lucrat in zilele de Rusalii, in popor cunoscuti drept cei “luati din calus”.

Grupurile de calusari , variabile ca numar component , dar mai ales alcatuite din noua flacai , include: un vataf, un stegar , un “mut”(acesta de obicei mascat si cu o sabie de lemn in mina) si calusari de rind. Calusarii fac legamint de ceata pe durate diferite , in mod curent o saptamina , uneori chiar si trei ani , iar juramintul se efectueaza cu miinle pe steag sau trecind pe sub steag ; se crede ca “mutul” daca isi incalca consemnul muteniei in timpul jocului, risca sa innebuneasca. Pe durata convenita a Calusului , membrii cetei se abtin de la relatii sexuale si de la minciuni , fiind obligati la puritate totala. Un moment caracteristic , dar totodata enigmatic este jocul executat in genunchi. Mutul , singurul care mai poarta sabie , este — prin mutenia lui — pastratorul secretului initatic.Vataful are misiunea supravegherii corectitudinii jocului , a chemarii periodice la vigilenta si a mentinerii starii de taina.

******************************************************************************************************

The mystical dancers. The ones with covered mouths (the name “calusarii” comes from “calus” or “gag” in English). The ones who cannot tell their secrets. Who can heal. Who can chase away bad spirits.

It’s a tradition with roots back to ancient Dacia. Groups of odd numbered men, sworn to stay together in celibacy and ritual dancing for a period of nine years. Their secrets never known. Feared warriors, fighting the “iele” (“them,” whose name cannot be said, the magical dancing maidens who you should never glimpse at or they could take your mind).

According to the Romanian historian Mircea Eliade, the Calusari were known for “their ability to create the impression of flying in the air” which he believed represented both the galloping of a horse and the dancing of the fairies (zine). Indeed, the group’s patron was the “Queen of the Fairies” , who was also known as Irodiada and Arada, and who Eliade connected with the folkloric figure Diana.

The origins of the Calusari are unknown, although the first written attestations are from the 17th century musical notations of Ioan Caianu. Eliade noted that “Although the oath taken is made in the name of God, the mythico-ritual scenario enacted by the calusari has nothing in common with Christianity” and that, in the 19th century at least, there was clerical opposition to the group, with its members being excluded from taking communion for three years in some regions.

The Calusarii have to stay together for the sworn period to remain invulnerable and invested with the supernatural powers and if they break away from the group they would fall prey to the iele. But together, they can heal those possessed by evil spirits by performing their dancing and rituals around them.

Due to their connection with the fairies, the Calusari were believed to be able to cure the victims of fairies and for around two weeks – from three weeks after Easter till Whitsunday – would travel to all the local communities where they would dance, accompanied by a few fiddlers, in order to do so. In their dance, the Calusari carried clubs and a sword, as well as a flag and a wooden horsehead. They swore on the group’s flag to treat each other as brothers, to respect the customs of the Calusari and to remain chaste for the next nine days. Upon their return home, their flag was fixed into the ground, with one member climbing up in and crying out “war, dear ones, war!”.

Many ancient traditions have been lost in Romania, some due to the Christian church that rejected all native customs and rituals and many because of communism and its fear of everything. Calusarii have remained as a source of fascination and national pride. In 2005, UNESCO proclaimed Calusarii one of the masterpieces of the oral and intangible heritage of humanity.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

3 comments on “Calusarii intre traditie si magie ~ Calusarii – The mystical dancers ~ welcome2romania.wordpress.com

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s